The Hall Effect Magnetic and Proximity Sensor Module can be used to detect the presence (or absence!) of nearby objects such as magnets. This sensor accepts a GND and +5V supply, and has a single digital output which goes low (GND) when a magnetic field is detected. The linear sourcing output voltage is set by the supply voltage and varies in proportion to the strength of the magnetic field. It has a low current consumption of only 6 mA typically at 5 Vdc, thus making this sensor energy efficient and suitable for low voltage applications.
The current, and the voltage, running through the sensor is changed in relation to the presence of a magnetic field. This sensor is designed, such that it can tell you the amount of voltage change as an analog output, and if the voltage has changed as a digital output. Since the sensor can provide digital and analog outputs, there is a surprising amount you can do with it. You can easily make a working sensor, or make a much more complicated one.
This sensor is built in such a way that it has everything needed to operate, including an LED. You can get a basic magnetic switch with nothing more than a 5v battery by connecting the magnet ports to the + and G pins. When a magnet is brought close to the sensor, the voltage will change and send a signal to the sensors integrated LED, telling it to light up. Making this is as one of the simplest sensor you can use.
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